Heartland Assays

β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB)


Mobley, CB, Fox CD, Ferguson BS, et al. 2014

L-leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyric acid (HMB) and creatine monohydrate prevent myostatin-induced Akirin-1/Mighty mRNA down-regulation and myotube atrophy. JISSN 11:38, 2014.
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Lowery RP, Joy JM, Rathmacher JA, et al. 2014

Interaction of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Free Acid (HMB-FA) and Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Resistance Trained Individuals. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Apr 7. [Epub ahead of print], PMID: 24714541
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Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, et al. 2014

The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Appl Physiol. 114(6):1217-27, 2014. PMID: 24599749
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Fuller JC Jr, Arp LH, Diehl LM, et al. 2014

Subchronic toxicity study of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 67:145-53, 2014. PMID: 24576552
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Wilkinson DJ, Hossain T, Hill DS, et al. 2013

Effects of leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism. J Physiol. 591(11):2911-23, 2013.
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Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, et al. 2013

β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate Free Acid Reduces Markers of Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Improves Recovery in Resistance Trained Men. Br. J. Nutr. 110(3):538-44, 2013.
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Fuller Jr JC, Baier S, Flakoll PJ, et al. 2011

Vitamin D status affects strength gains in older adults supplemented with a combination of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, arginine and lysine: A cohort study. JPEN 35(6): 757-62, 2011.
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Abumrad NN, Rathmacher JA, 2011

Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage is Not Attenuated by Maximuscle beta-Hydroxy-beta-Methylbutyrate-1000 Supplementation. J Strength.Cond.Res., 2011.
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Fuller Jr JC, Sharp RL, Angus HF, et al. 2011

Free acid gel form of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) improves HMB clearance from plasma in human subjects compared with the calcium HMB salt. Br. J Nutr. 105 (3):367-372, 2011.
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Wilson JM, Kim JS, Lee, SR, et al. 2009

Acute and timing effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage. Nutr.Metab (Lond) 6:6, 2009.
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Baier S, Johannsen D, Abumrad NN, et al. 2009

Year-long changes in lean body mass in elderly men and women supplemented with a nutritional cocktail of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and lysine. JPEN 33:71-82, 2009.
abstract not available


Kuhls DA, Rathmacher JA, Musngi MD, et al. 2007

Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation in critically ill trauma patients. J.Trauma 62 (1):125-131, 2007.
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Rathmacher JA, Nissen S, Panton L, et al. 2004

Supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine is safe and could improve hematological parameters. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 28 (2):65-75, 2004.
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Vukovich MD, Slater G, Macchi MB, et al. 2001

β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) kinetics and the influence of glucose ingestion in humans. J.Nutr.Biochem. 12:631-639, 2001.
no abstract available

Slater G, Jenkins D, Logan P, et al. 2001

β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not affect changes in strength or body composition during resistance training in trained men. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 11:371-383, 2001
no abstract available


Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, et al. 2000

Nutritional Treatment for Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Wasting Using β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, Glutamine and Arginine:  A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. JPEN 24:133-139, 2000.
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Panton LB, Rathmacher JA, Baier S, et al. 2000

Nutritional supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) during resistance training. Nutrition16:734-739, 2000.
no abstract available

Knitter AE, Panton LB, Rathmacher JA, et al. 2000

Effects of  β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on muscle damage following a prolonged run. J. Appl. Physiol. 89:1340-1344, 2000.
no abstract available


Nissen S, Sharp R, Rathmacher JA, et al. 1996

The effect of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance training. J.Appl.Physiol.81(5):2095-2104. 1996.
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